Working Thesis/Annotated Bibliography

For this step in the research process, you will be

1. Crafting a ‘working’ thesis statement (remember, it may change before the final copy of your paper and that’s okay!) and

2. Creating an annotated bibliography. Both of these will be typed according to MLA format and turned in for a grade.

How to do an Annotated Bibliography:

  1. Find your sources.
    1. Remember, you need a minimum of four sources; one from each of the categories outlined in the Overview of the research paper.
    2. READ your sources. Make sure you understand them and how they might function in your paper.
  2. Create an MLA citation for each of your sources.
    1. I highly recommend you do NOT use a program like ‘Easy Bib’ because it usually messes something up. Use the Purdue OWL as a reference for MLA citations.
      2. MLA citations are always double-spaced, using a hanging indent when continued on to the second and subsequent lines.
    2. Write an annotation for each source.
      1. The annotation will be two parts (mini-paragraphs).
        1. Part 1: Summarize the source. What main ideas are expressed in the source? 3-5 sentences, NOT including your own opinion.
        2. Part 2: Explain how you plan to use the source in your own paper (how will it help you prove your thesis?) and why the source is a credible one. Should be 2-3 sentences.
      2. *The annotation is in your own words, NOT copied from the original sources.
      3. Annotations should be single-spaced.
    3. Compile it all together in MLA format.
      1. Use the general rules for an MLA-formatted paper – 1” margins, 12 pt. TNR, MLA heading, Running Header with your last name & page number, etc.
      2. Title the paper ‘Working Thesis and Annotated Bibliography’
        1. Sub-title with the general topic of your paper (e.g. Public Education in America)
      3. Type your thesis statement.
      4. Follow with your annotated sources (use example as a guide).
        1. Always listed in alphabetical order according to the first thing in the MLA entry
      5. Print one-sided.

Working Thesis Statement

Because the issues that prevent organ donation from being highly effective primarily stem from unfounded myths and worries about the process, with improved education, organ donation could save more lives.

Cronin, Antonia J. and John Harris. “Authorisation, Altruism.” Journal of Medical Ethics, vol. 15, no. 1, 1996, pp. 41-50.

This journal article discusses the selflessness of donating organs. Although it is based on research from the United Kingdom, I believe the overall concept still applies to organ         donation in America. The authors of this article are medical experts.

I will use this article to explain organ donation from the experts’ side. It will give my paper some credibility.

Frangoul, Anmar. “Grieving Families.” CNBC, 15 Jan. 2016. Accessed 31 Jan. 2017.

In this recent article, Frangoul exposes that some families are upset about the organ donation process. These families were involved in making the decision to end life support and to donate their loved ones’ organs, but then later worried that they made the wrong choice. The reporter investigates the reason for this worry.

I plan to use this article to explain how organ donation is misunderstood. I think it represents some widely held beliefs about the dangers of organ donation.

Lovely, Stephen. Irreplaceable. Hachette Books, 2009.

This novel is a touching story about organ donation and how it can bring strangers together. The main character randomly meets the recipient of his loved one’s donated heart, and the connection between the two is undeniable. The story reflects organ donation in a positive light.

I will use this article to represent how organ donation is being portrayed in current American Literature. While the medical and legal concept surrounding organ donation are important, the human side of the experience is significant as well.

Choosing a Topic of Research Paper

Structure of research paper:

Topic (this is the question you are researching)/the position you are defending (persuasive)

  1. Introduction
  2. Attention getter (a general statement loosely related to your topic.)

Example: Every thirty seconds, someone in the United States is killed by a drunk driver, which is two people per minute, one hundred- twenty people per hour.

3. Thesis (the main point of your paper. This should the main focus of your paper.)

Example: The current penalties for drunk driving are not an effective means of keeping people from driving while intoxicated.

4. Directional statement (the three main details that back up or give information about your topic.) It should only be ONE sentence.

Example: The current laws are not working because drunk driving is the number one cause of vehicle related death in the country, it does not address the real issue of people who have alcohol problems and it allows people who have a good lawyer to get their licenses right away if they can afford a good lawyer.

5. Transition statement (a statement wrapping up your intro and moving the reader along to the rest of the paper.)

Example: The current law doesn’t sufficiently punish people enough for putting the lives of others in danger.

Choosing a topic:

1. What are a few topics that interest you?

2. What sort of controversy/issues do those interests present?

3. How are Americans already discussing these issues?

4. How might you add your own voice to this ongoing discussion?

Research Proposal:

• I will begin by researching the general topic of _____________________________, and more specifically, _________________________________________________________________.
• I plan to research different formats of ongoing discussion about this issue. I really hope to find:

• Going into this project, my current understanding and opinion of this topic is:

Ten Questions

Directions: It is helpful to begin the research process by conceding that there are many things you do not yet know about your topic, the sources you may find on that topic, or what you will have to say about the topic. For this reason, it can be beneficial to write down the questions that you have before you begin. Then, while you are researching, you can refer back to this list of questions to remind yourself where you started. It should guide and focus you throughout your search for information.

Doing the Research

Throughout your research process, it is important to keep in mind three important things:
(1) WHAT is the issue?
(2) HOW are Americans addressing this problem? –through their literature, artwork, reporting, formal research, etc.
(3) HOW will I propose my own solution to the problem?

Below, write out MLA Works Cited entries for your selected sources. You need one of each genre (4 minimum), but may cite more if needed.

A. Work of American Literature (prose or poetry)

B. Newspaper/Magazine Article

C. Multimedia

D. Journal Article (JSTOR)

8 Free Websites for Writing a Research Paper

Beginning Steps

Steps in Writing a Research Paper -from Empire State College, this site will walk you through the steps of writing a research paper with worksheets to help, such as choosing a research question, developing a thesis, and evaluating sources.

Owl – Purdue’s Online Writing Lab – step by step instructions for writing a research paper and OWL exercises to help you understand portions of writing papers, ex. Writing Numbers – when to spell them out or write them digitally


If you have trouble finding resources to start, Easy Bib has a Research section that will show you the bibliographies of other users that researched the same topic. It labels each entry as credible or maybe credible to not credible.

If you need more help with writing your paper you can check the Edusson research paper writing service.  The writers walks you through writing a paper from Brainstorming an idea to proofreading and revising.

Citelighter – downloadable tool bar that lets you highlight and save resources puts them on a page with the citation at the bottom of the page. The notes can be rearranged and when imported into Word, the citations become the Bibliography. They have Knowledge cards of research being done by other people. If your topic is not among them they will help create one for you.

Evaluating Web Sites – Cornell University’s Library has a printer-friendly webpage to help you evaluate the sites you may want to use in your research

Paper Review

Paper Rater – Free online grammar checker, plagiarism detector, word choice, sentence length, spelling, etc.

Plagiarism Checker – Checks phrases from your document, allows you to create a Google alert on your phrases

Bibliography Makers

BibMe – Free automatic bibliography maker can be downloaded in MLA, APA, Chicago, or Turabian formats

Sample Research Paper Template

Outline Thesis Statement in Research Paper


I. Introduction

II. Early family life

III. Adult life

IV. Career

V. Accomplishments

VI. Conclusion: Thesis (Why is this person a hero?)

Name (First and Last)
Date (5 May 2015)

(Introduction) Hook and thesis

Body #1 Early life

Body #2 Adult life

Body #3 Career

Body #4 Accomplishments

Conclusion (Thesis and answer the question “Why is this person a hero?”)

Grading Rubric

Thesis statement is one sentence.
Thesis statement has three main points.

There are notes from three sources. One source should be a book.
Works Cited page should be filled out using as notes are taken from each source
Each source should have one direct quote. The page number should be included for the book.

Finalized thesis should be written in the box on the Outline page.
Outline body paragraphs are written in sentence form. These sentences should become the topic sentence for each paragraph.

Rough draft
Introduction has a hook and a thesis.
Research paper body has two direct quotes with internal citations.
Each body paragraph has a topic sentence.
Each paragraph is indented.
There is adequate detail from research for each paragraph.
There are good transitions between ideas.
Spelling is correct.
Capitalization is correct.
Punctuation is correct.
The thesis is restated in the conclusion.

Final draft
Font should be for Verdana 12/ doublespaced.
All information should be converted from the template to actual student information.
Page numbers should be correct.
Works cited entries should be in alphabetical order.

Procedure for Creating Documentation Page On Citation Machine


  1. Open up “Sample Research Paper Template” document.
  2. Open the internet and go to URL “”
  3. From the bottom taskbar right click on “Show windows side by side.”
  4. From Citation machine choose MLA.
  5. Search bar: type “name of your book.
  6. Click on: “Search Books.”
  7. Scroll and find “author’s name.
  8. “Select” the right one.
  9. Scroll down to “Final Step” and click on it.
  10. Scroll down to “Make Citation” and click on it.
  11. Your citation box has a correct copy of your citation. Within the box click on blue “copy”. This step places your citation on your clipboard.
  12. Go to “Work Cited” page on “Sample Research Paper” document.
  13. Paste citation onto your document.


Raven, Peter H., and George B. Johnson. Biology. 6th ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2002. Print.

Procedure for Creating Documentation Page On Citation Machine

Internet Source

  1. Open up a “Sample Research Paper Template” document.
  2. Open the internet and go to URL “”.
  3. From the bottom taskbar right click on “Show windows side by side”.
  4. Copy the URL from the Internet page that you want to cite onto your clipboard.
  5. From Citation Machine choose MLA.
  6. Choose “Website” tab.
  7. Paste URL into the search bar.
  8. Choose “Search Websites”.
  9. “Select” the right one.
  10. Scroll down to “Final Step” and click on it.
  11. Scroll down to “Make Citation” and click on it.
  12. Your citation box has a correct copy of your citation. Within the box click on blue “copy”. This step places your citation on your clipboard.
  13. Go to “Work Cited” page on “Sample Research Paper” document.
  14. Paste citation onto your document.


“Abraham Lincoln.” A&E Networks Television. Web. 24 Apr. 2016.

Step by Step Procedure for Completing the Research Paper

Directions: Check each box as it is completed.

  • Download the “Sample Research Paper Template” into your student folder.
  • Choose a topic (role model) from the choices your teacher provides.
  • Have your teacher initial and date the first box “Topic.”
  • Write a working thesis statement in the box on your contract page. It can be a simple statement of why you think this person is a role model.
  • Have your teacher initial and date the second box “Working Thesis Statement.”
  • Complete all three sources by taking notes in the correct section.
  • As you choose your source capture the URL and immediately copy and paste it into the Work Cited section of your Sample Research Paper Template.
  • Make sure to copy a quote from each source. If it is a book be sure and write down the page number.
  • Have your teacher initial and date the third box “3 Sources and Notes.”
  • Since you have researched and know more about your topic, add information to your thesis on your Outline. Decide on three reasons that this person is a good role model. Make sure your thesis statement is one sentence long.
  • Summarize each paragraph into a single topic sentence.
  • Have your teacher initial and date the fourth box “Outline.”
  • Make sure that the correct information is entered on your Cover page, Outline page, and Works Cited page.
  • Using the information you have gathered in each category, begin filling in your Research section.
  • Make sure that you have at least two quotes that are correctly cited within your paper.
  • Have your teacher initial and date the fifth box “Rough Draft.”
  • Check your paper against the Grading Rubric.
  • Copy your paper.
  • Choose a peer editor to highlight spelling, capitalization, punctuation, organization, and clarity errors.
  • Have the peer editor initial and date the sixth box “Peer Edit.”
  • Using peer suggestions, make changes in your rough draft as needed. Make sure the pages on your Research Paper are numbered correctly. Make sure that you have 2 properly cited quotes.
  • Copy your final draft and turn in your Research Paper on top, your Research Paper Contract next, and your Grading Rubric.

The Incredibly Easy Guide to Shedding Body Fat for the Busy Person, part 2

  1. Avoid Drinking So Much Garbage

Now the truth is really simple… most of us are guilty of drinking way too many terrible calories from sugary drinks such as coke and red bull. But believe me they are doing far more damage to your waistline than you may think.

The only time these drinks should ever be considered are after you have completed a really tough and strenuous workout. Even then I’d avoid them, especially if you want to lose weight.

The drink that will help to melt your excess body fat will be water, and that is exactly what you want to stick to, if you want to get results that matter. Those calorie intense drinks are really tasty but they will do nothing but make you fat in the long run.

Just a single latte a day will cause you to gain an incredible 50 pounds of pure fat over the course of a year. That is how damaging such a thing can be in the long run.

If you really want to lose weight then I’d encourage you to stick to drinking water.

  1. Get Deep With Yourself

The reason that most of us end up trying to lose weight is because we want to look incredibly good when we take our clothes off. However the fact is that you will only ever lose all the weight that you want to lose, when you have a deeper, more meaningful reason to do so.

Don’t think that this is a waste of time because if you are serious about losing a lot of weight fast, then this is going to be the best investment that you ever make! Take is very seriously and it will help you get all the results that you want in no time at all.

  1. Snacking Made Real Simple

It seems that we as a world are used to eating all the time. We have so much available in terms of food that we have become used to constantly snacking all the time. Not great for those of us that really want to lose a lot of weight and fast. This means that the best thing that you are ever going to do for yourself is put down that bag of chips and pick up that piece of apple.

Healthy snacks will promote weight loss and what you should be snacking more on… it’s the junk foods that you want to keep away from! Just keep pushing yourself until you get to the point where you enjoy snacking on things that are really healthy… you’ll be amazed at how much weight you end up losing as a result.

As you can see, losing weight is a complete walk in the park when you know exactly what you need to do. Just follow the process exactly as I have laid out, and there is nothing in this world that can stop you from losing the weight that you want to lose.

The Incredibly Easy Guide to Shedding Body Fat for the Busy Person, part 1

Who isn’t busy in this day and age… the truth is that very few of us have the luxury of free time. The reason being is that we are constantly on the go, trying to cross out as many things off our to do lists as possible. And yes, it is a fact that we are more productive than ever before but we are paying a hefty price and that is our health.

We are getting fatter and fatter and very few of us are prepared to do anything about it, because we all believe that getting results will require that we spend countless hours in the gym and even more hours in the kitchen, trying to prepare all the healthy meals that you are going to have to eat.

With the tips that I’m going to share with you here today, I have to tell you that being busy just isn’t an excuse anymore. If you are ready to change a few core habits then there is nothing in the world that can stop you from losing the weight that you want to lose.

It doesn’t matter how much weight you want to lose… a little or a lot, you will get results if you just put your mind to it.

Screw the diet pills because the reality is that they just don’t work… don’t you think every single person on this planet would be in the best shape of their lives if they did?

If you consistently apply the following principles to your life, every single day then there is nothing in the world that can stop you from losing the weight that you want to lose!

  1. Reduce The Consumption Of Bread.

Slowly, one step at a time I’d encourage you to actually avoid bread all together. It will be the best thing you do and the key to losing the vast majority of the excess fat that you have on your person.

Yes, I know bread is really tasty and that is why I would encourage you to actually take your time and take it one day at a time. If you do then soon enough you will see the weight just begin to melt off your body.

  1. Avoid Eating Too Much At Meal Time

The overwhelming truth is the fact that most of us are used to eating far too much when we sit down for a meal. This is why we usually end up putting on weight year after year because we just can’t control our portion sizes. Do something else instead, for example, play online casino games or video games to get distracted. The key to losing weight without even making an effort, is to just reduce the amount we eat.

You’d be surprised at how easy this is, when you just start to focus on two things. Avoid all restaurants and secondly start to make your own meals at home, but make sure that you are limiting yourself to portion sizes that just about satisfy your hunger and that is it.

That is all there is to losing weight and eating less. Not only will you lose a lot of weight but you are going to feel far more energetic! Just try it for yourself to see the difference it makes to your life.

Don’t Miss the Recently Revealed Secrets of HCG diet

The hCG diet was created in the 1950′s by British Endocrinologist Dr. ATW Simeons while observing malnourished women giving birth to full sized and healthy children in underdeveloped countries. The theory is that the hCG allowed the metabolizing of fat which then was being used to keep the unborn child fed and nourished while in the womb. Dr. Simeons discovered that if a dieter were taking hCG shots and participating in a low calorie diet plan that they would lose significant amounts of fat without feeling hungry or overeating. Now over fifty years later the diet has stood the test of time but what exactly is the hCG diet plan aside from using real pharmaceutical hCG?

The hCG diet is done in four phases, here they are:

Phase 1

Phase one is a cleansing phase where the dieter simply begins to cut back on sugars to prepare the body for what is to come. Some choose to take colon cleansing supplements during this time and others prefer to do it naturally.

Phase 2

This is the first time the dieter begins taking hCG, but unlike other diets the 1st two days of phase 2 includes the dieter eating as much as they wish while simultaneously taking hCG injections. This preps the body and will stop the body from going into the starvation mode when the calories become reduced.

On day three the calories are reduced to 500 calories a day from an approved foods list. Calories can be increased to 700 if there is light exercise done during the day, the 500 calorie limit could potentially lead to feelings of becoming lightheaded or fatigue if there is any sort of fitness activity added. Two liters of water should be consumed every day as well as unsweetened coffee or tea in the morning. Additionally a b12 vitamin supplement may be included if the feelings of fatigue persist.

The low calorie diet is expected to be carried out for no longer than 40 days in a row but usually this is reduced to somewhere between 28-30 days. The dieter is to weight themselves every morning after using the restroom and weight should be consistently coming off on a daily basis.

The last two days of Phase 2 will be to remain on the hCG 500 calorie diet while stopping use of the hCG.

Phase 3

Phase 3 lasts for three weeks and is designed to get your body to stay within two pounds of the weight you achieved on the diet. Fitness activities can be resumed and calories can be gradually increased but it is critical to stay within two pounds of the weight achieved in phase two. All sugars and starches should still be out of the diet at this point. This stabilizes the body and teaches the body that the new weight is indeed the healthy weight for the dieter. If for some reason the dieter exceeds two pounds of their phase two weight they are to fast the next day drinking only water and then eat a large steak for dinner accompanied by an apple or tomato.

Phase 4

Phase four is used to maintain a healthy lifestyle, by this time most of the hCG should be out of the dieters system and healthy eating habits should be observed. Sugars and starches can be reintroduced slowly but if the dieter feels they are putting weight back on they can still do the occasional steak day to keep the body close to their goal weight.

At this point the dieter should have reached and maintained their goal weight of losing up to thirty pounds. If there is more weight to lose then another round of hCG may be in order but please remember that 4 to 6 weeks off the hcg shots is desired. The plan is designed for rapid weight loss followed by a reasonable fitness and calorie plan, not a life long routine.

The Importance of Electrocardiogram Components in Evaluating Heart Disease (Part II)

In mοѕt cases, thе human heart сοntаіnѕ fουr chambers thаt work tοgеthеr tο force blood tο the lungs аnd thе rest οf the body. Twο smaller chambers knοwn аѕ atria аrе responsible fοr filling twο lаrgеr chambers thаt аrе knοwn аѕ ventricles. Thе rіght ventricle pushes blood thrουgh thе vessels thаt lead tο thе lungs whіlе thе left ventricle pushes blood thrουgh thе vessels thаt lead tο thе rest οf thе body.

Thе contraction οf muscle cells іn thе heart іѕ coordinated thrουgh thе υѕе οf аn electrical signal thаt travels frοm thе top οf thе rіght atria tο thе bottom οf thе ventricles.

Aѕ thе signal travels thrουgh thе heart, іt triggers contraction. Thе fіrѕt wave thаt іѕ ѕееn οn аn ECG іѕ knοwn аѕ the P wave аnd іt represents rіght аnd left atrial depolarization аnd contraction. A large spike knοwn аѕ thе QRS complex fοllοwѕ the P wave аnd represents rіght аnd left ventricular depolarization and contraction. Thе final wave ѕееn οn a standard electrocardiogram іѕ referred tο аѕ thе T wave and іt signifies ventricular repolarization аѕ thе heart returns tο a resting state tο await thе nехt signal tο contract. It іѕ dυrіng thе resting state thаt thе ventricles аrе filled wіth blood. Thіѕ cycle οf waves іѕ repeated wіth еасh beat οf thе heart.

The amount οf time that elapses dυrіng a wave and bеtwееn dіffеrеnt points аlοng waves іѕ called an interval.

Intervals аrе υѕеd tο evaluate thе health οf electrical conduction іn thе heart. Abnormally long intervals сουld represent conduction blocks whіlе unusually short intervals сουld represent problems іn thе tissue’s thаt сrеаtе thе contractile signals. Althουgh technicians аrе expected tο mаkе аn initial evaluation οf thе quality οf аn electrocardiogram tracing, thеу аrе nοt required tο conduct a formal evaluation οf thе patient’s condition. Fοr thіѕ, thе technician mυѕt pass thе tracing аlοng tο аn advanced medical professional ѕυсh аѕ a nurse οr physician.

Thοѕе whο аrе interested іn working directly wіth individuals whο suffer frοm a variety οf heart conditions, bυt whο dο nοt wаnt tο spend mаnу years completing a college degree аnd specialized training аrе encouraged tο learn mοrе аbουt thе ECG technician career path.

Education, training, аnd certification requirements fοr thіѕ profession саn bе found bу visiting different educational websites, where readers can аlѕο discover detailed information аbουt dіffеrеnt types οf electrocardiograms аnd thеіr interpretation.

Hope, this information was helpful for you.